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Prospects and problems of the cognitive approach to religious metaphor. A cognitive semantic perspective pp. If there is no God. Language, culture, and body in human feeling. The biblical story retold.Św. Faustyna - Dzienniczek cz.8
A cognitive linguistic perspective. Observations and speculations on subjectivity. Proceedings of a symposium on iconicity in syntax, Stanford, June 24 26, pp. Toward a Catholic theology of nationality. Augustine on the teacher within. Text analysis in translation: Theory, methodology, and didactic application of a model for translation-oriented text analysis. A history of the development of doctrine.
Fidelity and the Gendered Translation
The emergence of the Catholic tradition. Slovene nominal diminutives and their English equivalents: From etymology to pragmatics: Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. An eye for an eye versus turning the other cheek: Moral accounting in the Gospel of Matthew. Accessed 20 Aug Tabakowska, E. Reggae reveals church involvement in slavery. Currents in Theology and Mission, 36 2Wierzbicka, A. Author information Isabelle Collombat is a graduate in French literature, linguistics and translation studies.
Her translation experience covers various fields, including technical translation, international relations and literature. Her research interests include retranslation, pseudo-translation, the translation of metaphor, sociology of translation, translation didactics. Abstract The main objective of the article is to draw attention to the importance of general knowledge in translator s problem solving. According to Collombat, universities tend to promote overspecialization.
It has been emphasized that both cognitive complements and translator apprentices ability to activate their extralinguistic knowledge are undervalued in translation didactics, while language skills are favored in curricula.
The author describes what kind of general knowledge could be of use for translators and provides examples of putting those facts into practice at the university. Collombat presents a man interacting with the physical world and society. Both levels of general knowledge are said to influence translator s decision making. The author refers also to Cattell s dual theory of intelligence and identifies general knowledge with crystalized intelligence, as it is education- and culture-based.
Logical skills are described as innate abilities typical for fluid intelligence. In that context, crystalized intelligence seems to be of greater importance to translators, since translation is a semantic process.
It is crystalized intelligence only that can be improved by education. The author of the article states that it is impossible to translate a text without perceiving it on the basis of previously acquired knowledge. The absence of cognitive complements is problematic when translating, but one can fail to activate them as well. That is connected with students obsession with the linguistic form, their lack of selfconfidence or language proficiency. Collombat criticizes students focus on form and less attention being paid to rendering meaning.
For the researcher it is crucial to teach the translator apprentices to be vigilant, to make them aware of their general knowledge even if it seems to be trivial to them and to promote general knowledge acquisition by reviewing factual information acquired while translating different texts.
She approves students preparing translation commentaries as well. Terminology Source text term Meaning Term in Polish cognitive complements Verbal, situational and cognitive contexts and extralinguistic world or encyclopedic knowledge.
It consists of acquired abilities such as verbal comprehension, numerical skills, and inductive reasoning. It is based on acculturation, including those factors learned in formal schools and in society. It is thought to be innate and relates to how well an individual perceives complex relations, uses short-term memory, forms concepts, and engages in abstract reasoning.
It is a systematic process of withholding assent regarding the truth or falsehood of all one's beliefs until they have been demonstrated or rationally proven to be true or false. Methodology Collombat starts with an attempt to define general knowledge.
Then, she emphasizes its relevance in translation by providing examples of translation errors that stem from obsessive reliance on the linguistic form instead of referring to extralinguistic assumptions. After that, the author lists proposals how to integrate general knowledge acquisition into translation teaching programs.
Teaching Translation and Interpreting 3: Critical commentary Collombat s article considers an aspect of translating that is not often noticed by translator apprentices, namely the importance of global knowledge acquisition. Unfortunately, from students point of view it is common to focus on the language instead of perceiving translation broader, as culturally embedded. Such an approach can lead to word-for-word translation and losing or changing the meaning of the source text.
Apart from that, the text sheds light on supposed reasons for the lack of cognitive complements. It is an interesting question why in some cases translators lose access to 3 27 Karolina Gajowiec their general knowledge.
It can be inferred that partially separate mechanisms are responsible for linguistic form and semantic processing. One can also try to explain that phenomenon referring to the concept of attention switching, attention overload or heuristics. Quotations to remember the text by Thus it appears that there are two levels of general knowledge: Many specialists of translation didactics have noted that a translator never takes on a translation with a mind empty of all knowledge.
Full bibliographical reference of the article Collombat, I General Knowledge: Translations Studies in the New Millenium 4: Gay identities and cultural transfer Keywords: Author Information Keith Harvey s is a translation and queer study theorist. His current work focuses on stylistic analysis of camp speech in English and French and on translation of gay fiction between those languages. He also studies transformation of sexual identities in cross-cultural context.
Harvey is one of the few translation studies scholars who have done research on translation issues arising from gay identity and camp style in homosexual discourse. He has done and published research on translation studies, literary stylistics, lexicography and language acquisition.
He has also co-edited with Celia Shalom of Language and Desire: Encoding Sex, Romance and IntimacyRoutledge. Abstract The main purpose of the text is the description of camp speech in English and French post-war gay fiction and approaches to its translation.
This is connected with the broader problem of defining links between language and identity, specifically its place in the context of translation studies. Harvey s study is based on M. Pratt s linguistics of contact theory and P. Levinson s politeness theory. He describes issue of different evaluation of camp on fictional 31 and wider, cultural levels in the text: Harvey argues that recognition of macro functional aspects of the text depends on cultural and even autobiographical issues of the translator.
In the next part Harvey moves on to a description of verbal camp and its main features including appropriation of language patterns, mix of formal and informal register, parody and theatralisation of effeminacy, inversion of gender-specific terms and intertextuality. He then proceeds to outline the most important accounts of camp in cultural context, among them S. Sontag s Notes on Camp and M. Booth s Camp He also notices the performative aspect of camp speech.
To illustrate the issues in translating camp speech he uses French translation of G. Vidal s The City and the PillarFrench: Duvert s Paysage de fantaisieEnglish: In the English texts, he notices visible features of camp speech. In the case of French-English translation, he points to translator s strategies to intensify camp and links it with commercial aspects and the active LGBT community in USA. On the other hand, downplaying camp features in French is, according to him, connected with a general unwillingness to accept gay identity as political and forming one s personality.
Methodology Harvey uses literary analysis methods, both linguistic and culturally oriented. It allows him to study language of gay fiction in social and political context.
By using in his research methods based on contact linguistic theory he examines gay fiction within prevailing straight discourse. At the same time Harvey uses queer theory terms to connect verbal camp with the problem of cultural identity.
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